A team of scientists, led by Neil Hall from the University of Liverpool, releases draft sequences of the wheat genome.
A bone fragment found in Denisova Cave, "Denisova 11", is identified as that of a girl who died 50,000 years ago aged at least 13. Genome-wide signatures tell that she had a Neanderthal mother and a mostly-Denisovan father. This first find of a prehistoric first-generation mixed offspring shows that different archaic human subtypes sometimes migrated, and then mixed more frequently than previously thought.
The journal "Science" publishes that an international team of scientists have for the first time successfully replaced one of the sixteen chromosomes of the genome of a yeast cell with a synthetic DNA chromosome.
Scientists at the J. Craig Venter Institute announce the successful transplant of a synthesized genome into an existing cell, creating the world's first artificial lifeform ("Mycoplasma laboratorium").