Russia arms Syria with Iskander missiles in response to NATO's stationing of Patriot missile defense systems in Turkey.
The United Nations Security Council approves aid deliveries to northwest Syria through one border crossing with Turkey, a day after its authorization for the six-year-long humanitarian operation ended. Russia and China abstain today on this week's fifth attempt to approve this help.
Turkey threatens to "strangle" the United States-backed Syrian Border Security Force "before it's even born", while Syria vows to crush it and expel American military personnel from the country. Russia called the plans "a plot to dismember Syria".
Russian president Vladimir Putin says a ceasefire has been brokered between the Syrian government and rebel forces. The ceasefire is said to be guaranteed by Russia and Turkey and would exclude UN-denominated terror organizations such as ISIL and al-Nusra. The FSA says it would abide by the truce, while Ahrar al-Sham expresses "reservations".
Turkish F-16 fighter jets shoot down a Russian Sukhoi Su-24 aircraft that had allegedly infringed its airspace near the Syrian border. Russia's Ministry of Defence denies the Su-24 entered Turkish airspace and initially said it was shot down by ground fire over Syria's Latakia Governorate. A video emerged of one pilot killed as local rebel Turkmen fighters shot at him while he was parachuting and a video of his body, while the fate of the other pilot is unknown but is presumed dead. A combat search and rescue mission by Russian forces failed to reach them. It is the first time a NATO member has shot down a Russian plane since the 1950s.
Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg says NATO will double its high-readiness force to 40,000, and may send ground troops to Turkey as a result of the escalation of Russian military activities in Syria, including violations of Turkish airspace.