European Commissioner for Trade Cecilia Malmström proposes to reduce all European Union import tariffs, also on automobiles, to zero if the United States reciprocates. President of the United States Donald Trump threatens to quit the World Trade Organization.
The European Union narrowly votes (285–281) to recommend that its 28 member nations drop criminal charges against Edward Snowden and protect him from U.S. extradition and to recognize him as a defender of human rights because of his revelations regarding U.S. and British spying.
The European Court of Justice decides an international agreement, generally known as a Safe Harbor rule, used by thousands of companies for moving people’s digital data between the European Union and the United States is invalid, effective immediately. The decision throws into doubt how global technology giants like Facebook, Amazon and Google can collect, manage, and analyze online information from their millions of users in the 28-member bloc. Decisions by this court, the highest legal authority in the EU, cannot be appealed.
Voters in Crimea vote overwhelmingly to leave Ukraine and rejoin Russia. Ukraine, the European Union, and the United States condemn the referendum, which did not give voters the option of the status quo.
The European Union and United States sign a five-year agreement on sharing financial data in anti-terrorist investigations for accounts suspected of being used for terrorist financing, after agreeing on limits to protect customer privacy. [https:--www.npr.org-templates-story-story.php?storyId=128164879 (NPR)]date=August 2019 [http:--www.startribune.com-science-97307829.html?elr=KArks:DCiUo3PD:3D_V_qD3L:c7cQKUiD3aPc:_Yyc:aUU ("Star Tribune")]date=August 2019
European Union leaders approve sanctions in Brussels, including bans on investments and oil-gas technology transfers, against Iran, harsher than recent sanctions imposed by the United Nations. Russia calls these and sanctions by the United States "unacceptable".