Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau appoints an independent special rapporteur to investigate alleged foreign electoral intervention by the Chinese government in the 2019 and 2021 Canadian federal elections.
The Federal Parliament of Nepal votes 124–93 in a no confidence vote against Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli over both his handling of the COVID-19 pandemic and his attempts to lead a minority government after his party, the Nepal Communist Party, split into the Communist Party of Nepal–UML and Communist Party of Nepal–Maoist earlier this year. President Bidya Devi Bhandari is expected to name Oli caretaker Prime Minister until the next election.
Sophie Wilmès is sworn in as Prime Minister of Belgium. Seven opposition parties have pledged to support the minority government—in its previous composition—with plenary power for three to six months to handle the coronavirus pandemic in Belgium.
Voters in Canada go to the polls to elect members of the 43rd Canadian Parliament. Polls show Justin Trudeau's Liberals and Andrew Scheer's Conservatives deadlocked with equal numbers of support after a divisive campaign.
Prime Minister Charles Michel says that the New Flemish Alliance (N-VA) party quits the coalition. N-VA cites its disagreement over the signing of the United Nations Global Compact for Migration. Michel plans to continue with a minority cabinet until the next scheduled election.
After counting special votes from the 20 September New Zealand general election, the National Party loses its one-seat majority after losing a seat to the Green Party. With the support of ACT and United Future, National still forms a government, albeit a minority government.
The Australian Council of Trade Unions and Australian Workers' Union threatens to withdraw support for the Julia Gillard minority government's plans to introduce a carbon tax unless it can be guaranteed that no jobs will be lost.
Cabinet formation in the Netherlands: Ivo Opstelten, the chairman of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, is appointed the new informateur, tasked with finalizing the formation of a right-wing minority coalition cabinet.
Cabinet formation in the Netherlands: The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and the Christian Democratic Appeal inform informateur Ruud Lubbers of a possible new right-wing coalition cabinet between the two parties to form a minority government but with support of the Party for Freedom (PVV).