The U.S.-led Artemis Accords are signed by the United States, Australia, Canada, Japan, Luxembourg, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United Arab Emirates. According to NASA, the Accords aim to establish norms of behavior between countries regarding lunar resource extraction and exploration, outline "safety zones" on the lunar surface where other countries should not interfere, and protect heritage sites on the lunar surface such as the Apollo landing sites. More signatories are expected to be announced in the coming months.
The United States Secretary of State Mike Pompeo declares the 2015 nuclear accord with Iran as no longer in force. He also warns that the United States "is prepared to use our domestic authorities to impose consequences" for other countries that do not enforce the sanctions. Britain, France, Germany, China, and Russia oppose the snapback sanctions.
U.S. officials confirm that an airstrike on an Iranian weapons depot in Amirli, Iraq on July 19 that killed two Iranian military commanders was conducted by Israel. The strike is the first known Israeli attack inside Iraq since Operation Opera in 1981.
Gibraltar says the United States has applied to seize the Iranian oil tanker "Grace 1", which is being held by the United Kingdom territory for an alleged breach of European Union sanctions against Syria.
Royal Marines seize control of an oil tanker off the coast of Gibraltar that was en route to Baniyas in Syria, suspected of breaching EU sanctions against Syria, carrying Iranian crude oil. The United Kingdom's Ambassador to Iran, Robert Macaire, is summoned in Tehran over the incident, which Iran describes as an "illegal seizure".
A rocket explodes inside the heavily fortified Green Zone sector of Iraq's capital, landing less than a mile from the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad amid heightened tensions in the region between the United States and Iran.